- 1 Lectionary
- 2 Jesus is baptised by John
- 3 The texts
- 4 The parallels
- 5 Commentary
- 6 Jesus Database
- 7 Liturgies and Prayers
- Isaiah 61:1-4, 8-11 and Psalm 126 (or Luke 1:47-55)
- 1 Thessalonians 5:16-24
- John 1:6-8, 19-28
Jesus is baptised by John
The tradition that Jesus was baptised by John is one of the most secure elements in the historical Jesus inventory since it was hardly something that the followers of Jesus were likely to invent. If anything, this tradition was something of an embarrassment to the early Christians.
While the canonical texts are readily accessible, it may be helpful to have the complete textual tradition available so that variations can be noted as well as the widespread attestation of the underlying story.
(1) GHeb 2
The whole fountain of the holy spirit comes down on him. For the Lord is the spirit and where the spirit is, there is freedom.
And it happened that when the Lord came up out of the water, the whole fountain of the holy spirit came down on him and rested on him. It said to him, “My Son, I was waiting for you in all the prophets, waiting for you to come so I could rest in you. For you are my rest; you are my first-begotten Son who rules forever.” [Complete Gospels]
(2a) Mark 1:9-11
In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan. And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him. And a voice came from heaven, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."
= Matt 3:13-17
Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan, to be baptized by him. John would have prevented him, saying, "I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?" But Jesus answered him, "Let it be so now; for it is proper for us in this way to fulfill all righteousness." Then he consented. And when Jesus had been baptized, just as he came up from the water, suddenly the heavens were opened to him and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him. And a voice from heaven said, "This is my Son, the Beloved, with whom I am well pleased."
= Luke 3:21-22
Now when all the people were baptized, and when Jesus also had been baptized and was praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended upon him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, "You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased."
(2b) GNaz 2
The mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, “John the Baptist baptized for the forgiveness of sins. Let’s go and get baptized by him.” But he said to them, “How have I sinned? So why should I go and get baptized by him? Only if I don’t know what I’m talking about.” [Complete Gospels]
(2c) GEb 4
When the people were baptized, Jesus also came and got baptized by John. As he came up out of the water, the skies opened and he saw the holy spirit in the form of a dove coming down and entering him. And there was a voice from the sky that said, “You are my favored son—I fully approve of you.” And again, “Today I have become your father.”
And right away a bright light illuminated the place. When John saw this, he said to him, “Who are you?” And again a voice from the sky said to him, “This is my favored son—I fully approve of him.” John knelt down in front of him and said, “Please, Lord, you baptize me.”
But he stopped him and said, “It’s all right. This is the way everything is supposed to be fulfilled.” [Complete Gospels]
(2d) John 1:(29-)32-34
The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him and declared, "Here is the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! This is he of whom I said, 'After me comes a man who ranks ahead of me because he was before me.' I myself did not know him; but I came baptizing with water for this reason, that he might be revealed to Israel." And John testified, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. I myself did not know him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain is the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' And I myself have seen and have testified that this is the Son of God."
(2e) IgnSmyr 1:1c
I glorify God, even Jesus Christ, who has given you such wisdom. For I have observed that ye are perfected in an immoveable faith, as if ye were nailed to the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, both in the flesh and in the spirit, and are established in love through the blood of Christ, being fully persuaded with respect to our Lord, that He was truly of the seed of David according to the flesh, and the Son of God according to the will and power of God; that He was truly born of a virgin, was baptized by John, in order that all righteousness might be fulfilled by Him; and was truly, under Pontius Pilate and Herod the tetrarch, nailed [to the cross] for us in His flesh. Of this fruit we are by His divinely-blessed passion, that He might set up a standard s for all ages, through His resurrection, to all His holy and faithful [followers], whether among Jews or Gentiles, in the one body of His Church.
(3) IgnEph 18:2d
Let my sprat be courted as nothing for the sake of the cross, which is a stumbling-block" to those that do not believe, but to us salvation and life eternal. "Where is the wise man? where the disputer?" Where is the boasting of those who are styled prudent? For our God, Jesus Christ, was, according to the appointment of God, conceived in the womb by Mary, of the seed of David, but by the Holy Ghost. He was born and baptized, that by His passion He might purify the water.
There are also a number of parallels that inform our appreciation of this tradition and how it may have been understood by the earliest Christians.
Odes of Solomon 24
The dove flies over the head of the Anointed One who is her head *
She sings over him and her voice is heard.Those who understand know holiness. Hallelujah!
The inhabitants are afraid and travelers shudder. *
Birds take flight and all creeping things die in their holes.
Chasms open and close, seeking God as a woman in labor ...*
Chasms sink and are sealed by the Lord.
People perish in their old ways of thinking. *
Everyone is imperfect and dies, saying nothing.
The Lord destroys the imagination of all who do not have truth. *
They are weak in wisdom and are rejected, lacking truth.
The Lord discloses the Way and spreads grace in alien lands. *
Lachs cites these examples of a dove being used as a symbol for the presence of God's Spirit:
And the Spirit of God brooded over the waters [Gen. 1.2] like a dove which hovers over her young without touching them ... [B. Hag. 15a]
It has been taught: R. Jose says: 'I was once traveling on the road and I entered into one of the ruins of Jerusalem in order to pray. Elijah of blessed memory appeared and waited for me at the entrance until I had finished my prayer. After I finished my prayer he said to me, 'My son, what sound did you hear in this ruin?' 'I heard a divine voice [bat qol] cooing like a dove and saying, "Woe to the children on account of whose sins I destroyed My house and burnt My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world!"' And he said to me: 'By your life and by your head! Not in this moment alone does it so exclaim, but thrice each day does it proclaim thus ... ' [B. Ber. 3b]
Several "Jesus and John" stories have survived in the Muslim gospel, but the following seems relevant to this item:
/53/ John and Jesus met and John said, "Ask God's forgiveness for me, for you are better than me."
Jesus replied: "You are better than me. I pronounced peace upon myself,God recognized the merit of them both. [mid-ninth century]
whereas God pronounced peace upon you."
John Beverley Butcher
In the introduction to An Uncommon Lectionary, Butcher comments on the pivotal significance of this event in the life of Jesus:
The liturgical year in this lectionary begins with the primary spiritual event in the life of Jesus: his Baptism by John in the Jordan River. Mark, the earliest narrative Gospel, opens with the ministry of John the Baptizer who is "calling for baptism and a change of heart that lead to forgiveness of sins." (Mark 1:4, SV)
The evidence is clear that something profound happened within Jesus which provided direction and energy for a ministry of teaching and healing. Without Jesus' baptism, there might have been no ministry, no getting into trouble with the authorities, no crucifixion, no resurrection experiences, no church, no Christian religion, and no church history! The course of human civilization would have gone quite differently.
According to Luke 3:23, Jesus was about thirty when he went to hear John preach. What might there have been in John's message that prompted Jesus to ask for baptism? And what might have he experienced during his baptism and the forty days in the wilderness that reportedly followed? Might the baptism in the Jordan and the time in the desert comprise a story illustrating his enlightenment?
John Dominic Crossan
Crossan [Historical Jesus, 232] introduces his brief discussion of this cluster as follows:
It belongs to the primary stratum, has three independent witnesses, and involves nine separate texts. But it is also evinces a very large amount of what I term, without any cynicism, theological damage control. The tradition is clearly uneasy with the idea of John baptizing Jesus because that seems to make John superior and Jesus sinful.
Crossan suggests that the development of the tradition can be traced across the texts in the following sequence:
Mark 1:9-11John 1:(29-)32-34
He cites Ron Cameron (The Other Gospels: Non-canonical Gospel Texts. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982) who proposed that the Gospel of the Hebrews represents a stage of the tradition which understood Jesus as the embodiment of divine Wisdom who had descended to earth and had been awaiting the appearance of Jesus.
In the end, Crossan concludes:
Jesus' baptism by John is one of the surest things we know about them both. (p. 234)
Flusser devotes chapter 3 [Jesus, 37-55] to the baptism of Jesus. He stresses the links between the Essene beliefs and practices at Qumran, where "baptism linked repentance with forgiveness of sins, and the latter with the Holy Spirit."
On the probability of ecstatic phenomena, Flusser observes:
We can well imagine the holy excitement of that crowd who had listened to the words of the Baptist. Having confessed their sins and awaiting the gift of the Holy Spirit to cleanse their souls from all the filth of sin, they plunged their bodies into the cleansing water of the river. Can it be that none of them would have had a special pneumatic-ecstatic experience in that hour when the Spirit of God touched them? (p. 40)
... many scholars are right in thinking that in the original account, the heavenly voice announced to Jesus, "Behold, My servant, whom I uphold, My chosen, in whom My soul delights; I have put My Spirit upon him, he will bring forth justice to the nations" (Isaiah 42:1). This form is probably the original, for the reason that the prophetic word fits the situation. (p. 41)
The gift of the Holy Spirit assumed a significance for Jesus that was different than for others who were baptized by John. Heavenly voices were not an uncommon phenomenon among the Jews of those days, and frequently those voices were heard to utter verses from scripture. Endowment with the Holy Spirit, accompanied by an ecstatic experience, was apparently something that happened to others who were baptized in John's presence in the Jordan. (p. 42)
If, however, the heavenly voice intoned the words of Isaiah, Jesus must have understood that he was being set apart as the servant of God, the Chosen One. For him, the gift of the Holy Spirit, which was part of John's baptism, held another special significance that was to become decisive for his future. None of the designations Son, Servant or Chosen One were exclusively messianic titles--the last two could also denote the special status of the prophetic office. By these titles, Jesus learned that he was now called, chosen, set apart. Nothing we have learned casts any doubt upon the historicity of Jesus' experience at his baptism in the Jordan. (p. 42)
- JBap baptized Jesus
- Jesus saw the heavens open and the spirit descend on him like a dove.
- Jesus heard a voice from heaven at his baptism saying, "You are my favored son."
- Jesus had visionary experiences.
- Jesus had a visionary experience at the time of his baptism.
- Jesus had a vision at his baptism.
- Jesus had a powerful religious experience at his baptism.
- Jesus was a disciple of JBap.
Barnes Tatum (John the Baptist and Jesus: A report of the Jesus Seminar.) comments as follows:
The Fellows are certain that this story preserves the memory of an occasion when John the so-called Baptizer baptized Jesus who would be called the Christ. Therefore, the Fellows are certain of the fact that JB baptized Jesus: red. But the Fellows consider it highly unlikely that the details as stated correspond to Jesus' experience on that occasion. They believe that the current story represents a symbolic account that was developed over time to identify Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God: black and black. (p. 148)
Tatum also comments on the Seminar's opinion that Jesus had a powerful religious experience at his baptism:
The Seminar based its vote of probability on themes and similar content that cut across literary forms and represent different literary sources. First, there are texts in which Jesus speaks of the spirit's being on him or operating through him (Q 11:20: Luke 4:16-30). Secondly, there is abundant evidence that Jesus functioned as a healer and exorcist. Thirdly, there is language suggesting intimacy between Jesus and God, such as Jesus' address of God as Abba, Father (Mark 14:36 par; Q 11:2-4). Fourthly, there is an emphasis upon the authority of Jesus in sayings and stories, often in contrast to tradition. Fifthly, there are periodic notations that Jesus practiced withdrawal and long hours of prayer. (p. 150)
Lüdemann [Jesus, 9] affirms the historicity of Jesus being baptized by John, but does not trace the theological interpretations back beyond the post-Easter community:
... Jesus did not regard his baptism as appointment to be the son of God. The underlying concept derives from the community, which believed in Jesus as the son of God (cf. Gal. 2.16; 4.4) and located his appointment within his lifetime. In the earliest period, for example, the appointment of Jesus as son of God came only after his resurrection from the dead (cf. Rom. 1.4).
John P. Meier
The second volume of A Marginal Jew devotes considerable space to a study of John as "mentor" to Jesus. The historicity of the baptism is addressed on pages 100-105, before considering the meaning of Jesus' baptism on pages 106-116. On the basis of the criterion of embarrassment, supported by a limited proposal for multiple attestation (relying on possible echoes of a Q version in John's Gospel and in 1 John 5:6), Meier concludes:
We may thus take the baptism of Jesus by John as the firm historical starting point for any treatment of Jesus' public ministry. (II,105)
Having established the historicity of the baptism event, Meier is adamant that the narrative must be seen as a Christian midrash, drawing on various OT themes to assert the primacy of Jesus over John. In particular, Meier insists that the theophany must be excluded from all attempts to understand the event, since it is a later Christian invention rather than a surviving memory of some actual spiritual experience of Jesus.
Meier's discussion of the meaning of the baptism puts great weight on the fact that accepting baptism implied Jesus' agreement with John's apocalyptic message, and also engages at length with the question of Jesus' sinlessness.
- 058 John Baptizes Jesus: (1) Gos. Heb. 2; (2a) Mark 1:9-11 = Matt 3:13-17 = Luke 3:21-22; (2b) GNaz. 2; (2c) GEbi. 4; (2d) John 1:32-34; (2e) Ign. Smyrn. 1:1c; (3) Ign. Eph. 18:2d
Liturgies and Prayers
For liturgies and sermons each week, shaped by a progressive theology, check Rex Hunt's web site
Other recommended sites include:
Advent for Children
This PowerPoint™ file offers a child-friendly version of the Jesus story (including the development of the post-Easter tradition) prepared by Peter J. Barnes and original illustrations by Bronwyn O'Callaghan. The file is 5.8MB in size and has preset transitions to run automatically. These settings can be edited as desired.
See the following sites for recommendations from a variety of contemporary genre: