116 Jesus Tempted

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This page forms part of the resources for 116 Jesus Tempted in the Jesus Database project of FaithFutures Foundation

Crossan Inventory | 116 Literature | 116 Parallels | 116 Commentary | 116 Poetry | 116 Images


(1) 3Q: Luke 4:1-2a = Matt 4:1-2a
(2) Mark 1:12-13

Crossan analysis:

Item: 116
Stratum: I (30-60 CE)
Attestation: Double
Historicity: ±


(1) 3Q: Luke 4:1-2a

Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness, 2 where for forty days he was tempted by the devil.

Ἰησοῦς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου καὶ ἤγετο ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν. (Luke 4:1–2 GNT-T)

= Matt 4:1-2a

Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 2 He fasted forty days and forty nights,

Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθη εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος πειρασθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. καὶ νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα, ὕστερον ἐπείνασεν. (Matthew 4:1–2 GNT-T)

(2) Mark 1:12-13

And the Spirit immediately drove him out into the wilderness.

13He was in the wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan;
and he was with the wild beasts; and the angels waited on him.

Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον. καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ σατανᾶ, καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ. (Mark 1:12–13 GNT-T)




Jesus Seminar

The Seminar voted all three accounts gray, but the commentary in [The Acts of Jesus] (p. 55) notes that "the Fellows were fairly evenly divided on whether Jesus underwent a period of testing in the wilderness such as Mark depicts here. The weighted average fell just below the line separating pink and gray."

Samuel T. Lachs

Lachs [Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament], (50):

The theme that a hero or holy man was to be tested before his career began or before his mission was undertaken is commonplace in the literature of antiquity. Rabbinic homilies on this theme are often based on Ps. 11.5, The Lord tests the righteous, not the wicked. The most notable example of this testing in Jewish tradition is Abraham, of whom it is stated, "With ten trials our father Abraham was tried, and he withstood them all to make known how great was the love of Abraham our father."

Gerd Lüdemann

Lüdemann [Jesus], (10) dismisses the tradition as unhistorical:

The tradition is present only in rudimentary form (cf. by contrast the tradition in Q: Matt. 4.1-11/Luke 4.1-13) and the details can no longer be reconstructed. Perhaps it seeks to depict Jesus as a righteous man, a new Adam (cf. Rom. 5.12-21; I Cor. 15:45-49), who embodies the righteous son of God.



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