031 Commentary

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This page forms part of the resources for 031 First and Last in the Jesus Database project of FaithFutures Foundation

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John Dominic Crossan

Crossan [Historical Jesus] (274-76) notes that this saying is part of a larger complex critical of wealth within the wider motif of a "brokerless kingdom." he also notes the "twin" saying, [040 Have and Receive] [1/3].

International Q Project

[IQP] omits this saying from the critical text of Q and translates Q 13:28-29 as follows:

29 [And many] shall come from Sunrise and Sunset and recline 28 with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of God, but [you will be] thrown out [into the] out[er darkness], where there will be wailing and grinding of teeth. [30 The last will be first, and the first last.]

Jesus Seminar

The views of the Seminar can be represented as follows:

  • GThom 4:2
  • GThom 4:3
  • POxy654 4:2a
  • Luke 13:30
  • Matt 20:16
  • Mark 10:31
  • Matt 19:30
  • Barn 6:13a

[The Five Gospels] (p 93f & 225) notes that the form of the saying in Matt 20:16 is more likely to be close to the speech of Jesus due to its unequivocal form, whereas Mark 10:31 (followed by Matthew at 19:30) modified the radical reversal of roles implicit in the saying. The commentary observes: "By placing it here, Mark gives this aphorism a meaning that is nearly the opposite of what it meant on the lips of Jesus."

Gerd Lüdemann

Lüdemann [Jesus] (69) observes this saying is found "attached to a great variety of stories and is not suitable as the object for verdicts of authenticity."