- James (the apostle) had at least one visionary religious experience, which he came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
- John (the apostle) had at least one visionary religious experience, which he came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
- A group known as "the Twelve" had at least one visionary religious experience, which it came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
- A group known as "the apostles" had at least one visionary religious experience, which it came to regard as an appearance of the risen Jesus.
- The formation of the appearance traditions mentioned in 1 Cor 15:3-8 falls into the time between 30 and 33 CE.
- The Gospel of Peter independently developed earlier exegetical traditions already in use in early Christian communities; it is not derived from the New Testament gospels.
- Matt 28:16-20
- Luke 24:33b-49
- John 20:19-23
- With respect to content, the appearance stories in the gospels appear to be connected with (a) the commission to preach the gospel, (b) the authorization to found a community of believers, (c) the legitimization of leaders, and (d) the plan of salvation history.
- Accounts of the appearances (of the risen Jesus) in the gospels are secondary kerygmatic narrative expressions of resurrection faith made by relatively late communities.
Matt 28:16-20 The description of Jesus's appearance is minimal, as attention is focused on the content of Jesus' message to the Eleven. Luedemann notes that "the historical yield is extremely meager." He accepts the early tradition that various disciples had visionary experiences, most probably located in Galilee, and that these experiences led to the founding of "a community which preached the resurrection and exaltation of Jesus as the Messiah and/or the Son of Man among their Jewish contemporaries." [Jesus], (255f)
Luke 24:36-53 The emphatic realism in the recognition scene that begins this appearance story mans "one can hardly avoid seeing this as a thrust against docetism. Evidently in this verse Luke is combating the same challenges to the bodily reality of Jesus as Ignatius, To the Smyrneans 3.2, does at the beginning of the second century." Luedemann concludes, "The historical yield is nil, both in respect of the real historical event and in connection with the visions which were the catalyst for the rise of Christianity." [Jesus], (413-415)