John Dominic Crossan
While this complex is one of 12 complexes with plural attestation that refer to the kingdom of God, Crossan does not consider it historical. Like 120 The Lords Prayer [1/3], whose authenticity Crossan also rejects, this complex concerns ritual activity. Crossan Historical Jesus, 293 suggests that the shared interest in ritual activity may indicate that this was "a generative matrix for early and plurally attested materials that do not, despite that status, go back to Jesus himself."
When discussing the complex itself, Crossan draws on Dennis MacDonald, There Is No Male and Female: The Fate of a Dominical Saying in Paul and Gnosticism. (Harvard Dissertations in Religion, 20) Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987.
Noting the baptismal themes and the triadic forms involved with this saying, Crossan suggests that the most original version of the saying was probably a triad of dual expressions, each offering an alternative statement of the same point. While Crossan does not think the surviving forms of this complex stem from the historical Jesus, he thinks it is an interpretation of a saying that does derive from Jesus (Historical Jesus, 298). He concludes:
Jesus' Kingdom of nobodies and undesirables in the here and now of this world was surely a radically egalitarian one, and, as such, it rendered sexual, social, political and religious distinctions completely irrelevant and anachronistic. Different Christian groups could and did focus that radical egalitarianism on this or that distinction, for example, the Corinthians on sex and gender, or Paul on religion and freedom. Usually and eventually such a single focus betrayed egalitarianism even in that one limited area. But radical lack of social differentiation remained a permanent challenge to all other specifications, interpretations, and actualizations of the Kingdom proclaimed by Jesus.
NB: This cluster was not identified as a separate element of the tradition by the Jesus Seminar. No voting data is reported for Gal 3:27-28; 1Cor 12:13; or Col 3:10-11. The voting data on GThom 22 and 106 do not identify the Two As One saying, but rather focus on "God's Domain and Children: Nursing" and "If You Say to This Mountain" respectively. No voting data is reported for GEgy 5b or 2Clem12:1-6.
- Thom 22:2
- Thom 22:2
- Thom 106
- Thom 106:1-2
On some occasions a text was reconsidered at more than one session of the Seminar, sometimes resulting in a different color grading.